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Monday, 17 February 2014

Anesthetics

Because diethyl ether ( commonly known simply as ether ) is a short-lived muscle relaxant, it has been widely used as an inhalation anesthetic. However, because it takes effect slowly and has a slow and unpleasant recovery period, other compounds, such as enflurane, isoflurane, and halothane, have replaced ether as an anesthetic. Diethyl ether is still used where there is a lack of trained anesthesiologists, because it is the safest anesthetic to administer by untrained hands. Anesthetics interact with the nonpolar molecules of cell membranes, causing the membranes to swell, which interferes with their permeability.

sodium pentothal ( also called thiopental sodium ) is commonly used as aintravenous anesthetic. The onset of anesthesia and the loss of consciousness occur within seconds of its administration. Care must be taken when administrating sodium pentothal because the dose for effective anesthesia is 75% of the lethal dose. Because of its toxicity, it cannot be used as fore an inhalation anesthetic is administered. Propofol is an anesthetic that has all the properties of the "perfect anesthetic ": It can be used as the sole anesthetic by intravenous drip, it has a rapid and pleasant induction period and a wide margin of safety, and recovery from the drug also is rapid and pleasant.

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